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Docherty, M.*, Boxer, P., Veysey, B.M.*, & Ostermann, M.* (2016). Gender differences in prevalence of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in a justice-referred sample of youth. Journal of Juvenile Justice, 5(2), 104-120

This study analyzed the mental and behavioral health profiles of male and female adolescents referred by justice authorities for intensive, home-based treatment. This study characterized the internalizing and externalizing symptoms reported in the sample by gender and examined correlations among symptoms. A sample of 421 youth completed a questionnaire about their mental and behavioral health, and their parents/ caregivers completed a corresponding questionnaire about their child’s mental and behavioral health. Females experienced more internalizing and externalizing symptoms compared to males, and according to both youth and caregiver reports, were more likely to experience clinical levels of these symptoms. Although adolescent females may receive referrals and treatment at lower rates, they often experience elevated lev- els of depression, conduct problems, and other mental health difficulties compared to similarly high-risk males