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Drawve, G., Caplan, J. M., & Ostermann, M. (2019). Utilizing a risk of crime measure for recidivism research: Moving environmental corrections forward. Crime & Delinquency. 65(5), 606-629.

The current study expands recidivism research by developing a risk of crime (ROC) measure rooted in environmental criminology, reflecting the risk of criminal opportunities, and lending itself to environmental corrections. Data were collected from a city in the Northeast region of the United States. The ROC measure was constructed through risk terrain modeling and reflected a parolee-specific neighborhood ROC. Conjunctive analysis of case configurations was utilized to explore how individual characteristics interacted with the ROC measure. Results indicated a relationship between parolees residing in an elevated ROC neighborhood and the likelihood of recidivism. The results were discussed in relation to how environmental criminology could be further integrated into environmental corrections, accounting for physical and social characteristics of the backcloth.