Edwards, F.R., Esposito, M., & Lee, H. (2018). Risk of police-involved death by race/ethnicity and place, United States, 2012-2018. The American Journal of Public Health, 108, 1241-1248.
The objective was to estimate the risk of mortality from police homicide by race/ethnicity and place in the United States. We used novel data on police-involved fatalities and Bayesian models to estimate mortality risk for Black, Latino, and White men for all US counties by Census division and metropolitan area type. The results showed that police kill, on average, 2.8 men per day. Police were responsible for about 8% of all homicides with adult male victims between 2012 and 2018. Black men’s mortality risk is between 1.9 and 2.4 deaths per 100 000 per year, Latino risk is between 0.8 and 1.2, and White risk is between 0.6 and 0.7. Police homicide risk is higher than suggested by official data. Black and Latino men are at higher risk for death than are White men, and these disparities vary markedly across place.