Miller, J., & Maloney, C. (2020). Operationalizing risk, need, and responsivity principles in local policy: Lessons from five county juvenile probation departments. The Prison Journal, 100(1), 49-73
We examined the operationalization of risk, need, and responsivity principles (RNRP) in local policy in five Pennsylvania county juvenile probation departments. “Core” policies focused on officers’ assessment; decision-making about client services and supervision; engagement with system stakeholders; and intervention with clients. “Supporting” policies focused on competency development; management and supervision; and performance measurement. Policy variations highlighted innovations and dilemmas in operationalizing RNRP. Dilemmas included the extent to which officers are cast as change agents; how needs are prioritized; how risk and needs are tied to decisions; and how officers advocate about assessment results with system stakeholders.