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Based upon recent investigation rates, as many as 37% of children born this year in the United States may become the subject of a child welfare system investigation. Among Black children, an estimated close to 50% are likely to be subject to such an investigation.1  Although rates of serious physical injury to children are on the decline,2  the number of children reported for neglect has increased. Child maltreatment investigations have become the foremost intervention to safeguard children in the United States. This focus on reporting, investigation, and child removal has a long history.3  Furthermore, the burden of the coercive aspects of the child welfare system is carried disproportionately by Black families.