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Howell, J.C., & Griffiths, E. (2019). Gangs in America’s Communities (3 Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Gangs in America’s Communities, Third Edition blends theory with current research to help readers identify essential features associated with youth violence and gangs, as well as apply strategies for gang control and prevention. Authors Dr. James C. Howell and Dr. Elizabeth Griffiths introduce readers to theories of gang formation, illustrate various ways of defining and classifying... Learn More


Rengifo, A. F., & DeWitt, S. (2019).  Incarceration and personal networks. Unpacking meanings and measures of tie strength. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 35:393-431.

The advent of mass incarceration has reinvigorated calls for a deeper understanding of how the “quality of relationships” is shaped by imprisonment (Travis J, Western B, Redburn S (eds), The growth of incarceration in the United States: exploring causes and consequences, National Academies Press, Washington DC, 2014). We address this issue by describing how imprisonment relates... Learn More


Rengifo, A.F., Slocum, L.A., & Chillar, V. (2019). From impressions to intentions.  Direct and indirect effects of police contact on willingness to report crimes to law enforcement.  Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 56:412-450.

Crime reporting intentions have been associated with ratings of police legitimacy and effectiveness. Less is known about the role of personal encounters with police. We explore this issue by specifying associations between reporting intentions and type of contact (involuntary/voluntary), scope (cumulative/recent), and appraisal (respect/satisfaction with last encounter).  This study draws on surveys of young adults... Learn More


Enns, P. K., Yi, Y., Comfort, M., Goldman, A. W., Lee, H., Muller, C., Wakefield, S., Wang, E.A., & Wildeman, C. (2019). That percentage of Americans have ever had a family member incarcerated?:  Evidence from the  history of incarceration survey (FamHIS). Socius, 5, 1-45. doi:10.1177/2378023119829332

What percentage of Americans have ever had a family member incarcerated? To answer this question, we designed the Family History of Incarceration Survey (FamHIS). The survey was administered in the summer of 2018 by NORC at the University of Chicago using their AmeriSpeak Panel. It was funded by FWD.us, which released a separate report using... Learn More


Turney, K., & Wakefield, S. (2019). Criminal justice contact and inequality. RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences, 5(1), 1-23. doi:10.7758/rsf.2019.5.1.01

The American incarceration rate, though recently stabilized, increased rapidly over the past half century. Today, compared with the 1970s, more than five times as many people spend time in prison annually (National Research Council 2014; Wakefield and Uggen 2010). The historically unprecedented incarceration rates have wide-ranging consequences for the well-being of individuals, families, and communities. The confinement... Learn More