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By Faculty

Apel, R.* and Horney, J. (2017). How and why does work matter? Employment conditions, routine activities, and crime among adult male offenders. Criminology 55: 307-343.

An inverse relationship between employment and crime is well established, although the mechanisms that account for the correlation remain poorly understood. In the current study, we investigate the role of work quality, measured objectively (hours, income) as well as subjectively (commitment). A routine activities perspective is proposed for the work-crime relationship, and it inspires hypotheses... Learn More

By Faculty

Apel, R.* and Powell, K. (2019). Level of criminal justice contact and early adult wage inequality. RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences 5: 198-222.

This study explores heterogeneity in the relationship between criminal justice contact and early adult wages using unconditional quantile regression models with sibling fixed effects, estimated separately by race-ethnicity. The findings support the contention that the relationship between criminal justice contact and wages is heterogeneous in three respects: level of contact, race, and location in the... Learn More

By Faculty

Baćak, V.* and  Apel, R.* (2019).  The thin blue line of health: Police contact and civilian wellbeing in Europe. Social Science and Medicine. 

Increasing evidence suggests that even minor forms of contact with the criminal justice system—such as being stopped by police—may be implicated in poor health. Police use of force can increase the risk of physical injury, whereas interactions accompanied by abusive rhetoric or threats can lead to psychological and emotional harm. Police contact may also have... Learn More

By Faculty, By Students

Bhardwaj, N. and Apel, R*. (2020). Societal gender inequality and the gender gap in safety perceptions: Comparative evidence from the international crime victims survey. European Journal of Criminology. 

This study considers whether societal gender inequality moderates the relationship between gender and perceptions of personal safety. Pooled 1992–2005 rounds of the International Crime Victims Survey, comprising more than 285,000 respondents from 75 countries, are used to estimate multilevel models of safety perceptions, with a cross-level interaction specified between gender and gender inequality. We find... Learn More

By Faculty

Demir, M., Apel, R.*, Braga, A.A., Brunson, R.K. and Ariel, B. (2020). Body worn cameras, procedural justice, and police legitimacy: A controlled experimental evaluation of traffic stops. Justice Quarterly 37: 53-84. 

Police legitimacy is generally regarded as a view among community members that police departments play an appropriate role in implementing rules governing public conduct. Placing body worn cameras (BWCs) on police officers has been suggested as a potentially important response to police legitimacy crises. We use a rigorous controlled quasi-experimental evaluation to test the impact... Learn More

By Faculty

Berryessa, C.M.*,  Coppola, F., and Salvato, G. (2020). The potential effect of neurobiological evidence on the adjudication of criminal responsibility of psychopathic defendants in involuntary manslaughter cases. Psychology, Crime, & Law.

Research on how neurobiological evidence influences jurors’ decision-making in adjudications of criminal responsibility is growing. Mock trial studies on this topic have almost entirely considered purposeful violent crimes, but the results of these studies are inconsistent. The present study tests the effects of neurobiological evidence (neuroimaging, clinical psychology, and genetics) on outcomes related to criminal... Learn More

By Faculty

Berryessa, C.M.* and Krenzer, W. (2020). The stigma of addiction and effects on community perceptions of procedural justice in drug treatment courts. Journal of Drug Issues.

We present a series of four between-subject, multifactorial experiments that examine how labeling offenders with addiction, as well as if that psychiatric label is described to be biologically influenced, may affect community perceptions regarding the importance of procedural justice in drug treatment courts. Stigmatization toward addiction is hypothesized to moderate community views on procedural justice.... Learn More

By Faculty

Berryessa, C.M.* and Reeves, J. (2020).  The perceptions of juvenile judges regarding adolescent development in evaluating juvenile competency.  Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology.

This analysis provides the first known in-depth qualitative inquiry into if and how juvenile court judges take the psycho-social immaturity and development of adolescents into consideration when making attributions of adjudicative competency of offenders in juvenile court. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-seven U.S. juvenile court judges, followed by grounded theory analysis. Competency evaluations from psychologists... Learn More

By Faculty

Lynch, J., Lane, J., Berryessa, C.M.* and Rottman, J. (2019). How information about perpetrators’ nature and nurture influences assessments of their character, mental states, and deserved punishment. PLoS ONE 14(10): e0224093.

Evidence of perpetrators’ biological or situational circumstances has been increasingly brought to bear in courtrooms. Yet, research findings are mixed as to whether this information influences folk evaluations of perpetrators’ dispositions, and subsequently, evaluations of their deserved punishments. Previous research has not clearly dissociated the effects of information about perpetrators’ genetic endowment versus their environmental... Learn More

By Faculty

Berryessa, C.M.* and Lively, C. (2019). When a sex offender wins the lottery: Social and legal punitiveness toward sex offenders in an instance of perceived injustice. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law 25(3): 181-195.

We present 3 experimental, between-subjects studies, utilizing a lottery win scenario, that attempt to illuminate how different forms of child sex offender stigma lead to support for forms of legal and social punishment in instances of perceived injustice when a “bad” person is randomly rewarded. The first study sought to examine how the child sex... Learn More