Rutgers School of Criminal Justice

Dr. Robert Apel

Professor, and Ph.D. Program Director


Ph.D. (2004) University of Maryland


Bob Apel (pronounced AY-pull) joined the faculty of Rutgers University in 2011. His research expertise concerns the relationship between employment and crime, with special emphasis on the youth labor market and the transition to adulthood. A second research specialty concerns the short- and long-term impacts of incarceration experiences on life outcomes, specifically with respect to the labor market. A third area of inquiry involves the study of assault victimization, namely the way that the victim-assailant relationship influences outcomes (e.g., completion, injury, lethality).


Areas of Specialization
Labor markets & Crime
Violent Victimization & Injury
Applied Econometrics

Key Publications
Hsu, H. Y., & Apel, R. (2015). A Situational Model of Displacement and Diffusion Following the Introduction of Airport Metal Detectors. Terrorism and Political Violence, 27(1), 29-52.

Bushway, S. & R. Apel. 2012. A signaling perspective on employment-based reentry programming: Training completion as a desistance signal. Criminology and Public Policy

Apel, R. & J. D. Burrow. 2011. Adolescent victimization and violent self-help. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice 9

Apel, R., & G. Sweeten. 2010. The impact of incarceration on employment during the transition to adulthood. Social Problems 57

Apel, R., Blokland, A., Nieuwbeerta, P., & M. van Schellen 2010. The impact of imprisonment on marriage and divorce: A risk set matching approach. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 26


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