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Dr. Ebony Ruhland

Associate Professor


Ph.D., Social Work, University of Minnesota (2016); M.A., Counseling and Psychological Services, St. Mary’s University (2007); B.A., Sociology of Law, Crime, and Deviance, University of Minnesota (2003)

Office Location

CLJ, 556

Areas of Specialization

Police and Community
Correction Policies
Criminal Justice Policies


Dr. Ebony Ruhland received her Ph.D. from the School of Social Work at the University of Minnesota. Her research focuses on how criminal justice policies and practices impact individuals, families, and communities. Dr. Ruhland is currently working on research projects in four areas: 1) examining factors that lead to probation revocations, including the use probation conditions, specifically supervision fees; 2) exploring factors parole members consider to determine readiness for release; 3) identifying ways to bridge police and community relationships; and 4) examining the impacts of parental incarceration on children.

Through her research, Dr. Ruhland hopes to find ways to improve criminal justice and corrections policies to reduce mass incarceration, racial disparities, and collateral consequences while at the same time maintaining public safety.


Ruhland, E.L. & Scheibler, E. (forthcoming) Probation officer discretion in monitoring and violating supervision conditions. Probation Journal.

Phelps, M. & Ruhland, E.L. (2021). Governing marginality: Coercion and care in probation supervision. Social Problems. https://doi.org/10.1093/socpro/spaa060

Miller, W., Campbell, C., & Ruhland, E.L. (2021) The contributions of static and dynamic factors to recidivism predictors for black and white youth. Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology.

Johnson, L., Pelly, C., Ruhland, E.L., Bess, S., Dariotis, J.K., & Moore, J. (2021). Reclaiming safety:participatory research, community perspectives, and possibilities for transformation. Standford Law Review.

Ruhland, E.L., Petkus, A., Link, N., Hyatt, J., Holmes, B., & Pate, S. (2021). Monetary sanctions in community corrections: Law, policy, and their alignment with correctional goals. Contemporary Journal of Criminal Justice, 37(1),108-127.

Ruhland, E.L. (2021). It’s all about the money: An exploration of probation fees. Corrections: Policy, Practice, and Research, 6(1), 65-84.

Link, N., Powell, K., Hyatt, J., & Ruhland, E.L. (2021). Considering the process of debt collection in community corrections: The case of the monetary compliance unit. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 37(1), 128-147.

Ruhland, E.L. (2020). Philosophies and decision making in parole board members. The Prison Journal, 100(5), 640-661.

Ruhland, E.L. (2020). Social worker, law enforcer, and now bill collector: Probation officers’ collection of supervision fees. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 59(1), 44-63.

Ruhland, E.L., Holmes, B., & Petkus, A. (2020). The influence of fines and fees on probation. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 47(10), 1244-1263.

Ruhland, E.L., & Selzer, N. (2020). Gender differences in white-collar offending and supervision. Criminal Justice Studies, 33(1), 13-30.

Link, H., Hyatt, J.M., & Ruhland, E.L. (2020). Monetary sanctions, legal and collateral consequences and probation & parole: Where do we go from here? UCLA Criminal Justice Law Review, 4(1), 200-212.

Ruhland, E.L., Davis, L., Atella, J., & Shlafer, R. (2020). Externalizing behavior among youth with a current or formerly incarcerated parent. International Journal of Offender Therapy & Comparative Criminology, 64(1), 3-21.

Harbinson, E., & Ruhland, E.L. (2020) Examining how the policies of paroling authorities in the United States can support evidence-based practices. European Journal of Probation,  12(3), 182-199.

Ruhland, E.L., & Rhine, E. (2018). Paroling authority chairs within corrections today. Perspectives: The Journal of the American Probation and Parole Association, 42(2), 75-81.